These agreements include a degree of flexibility in implementation by both developing countries, WTO members (special and differential treatment) and least developed countries (LDCs) and net food-importing developing countries (specific provisions). On the eve of the GATT Ministerial Conference held in Punta del Este, Uruguay in 1986, the agricultural lobbies of the industrialized countries strongly opposed the agricultural compromises. In this context, the idea of excluding „trade-neutral“ production and subsidies from WTO commitments was first proposed by the US in 1987 and reiterated shortly thereafter by the EU. [2] By ensuring continued support for farmers, it has also neutralised resistance. In exchange for the inclusion of agriculture in WTO disciplines and a commitment to reduce trade-distorting subsidies in the future, industrialized countries would be allowed to maintain subsidies that „cause no more than minimal trade distortions“ in order to achieve various public policy objectives. [1] The 60% of Ghana`s workforce working in agricultural agriculture in Ghana is mainly destined for the production of cocoa and food crops. Cocoa is the main agricultural export product, although the government has tried to diversify its export base, including by encouraging non-traditional exports. It is clear that the liberalisation of agriculture has reduced the incomes and purchasing power of some consumers. In many countries, producer and consumer prices are more closely linked to world prices and world markets, increasing the vulnerability of consumers who spend the highest percentage of household income on food. Low-income, low-resource farmers have been negatively affected. The impact on other vulnerable groups, such as landless agricultural and urban workers, is less clear, although in Kenya, thousands of jobs have been lost in agricultural industries.

In Chad and Mali, low and unpredictable productivity levels and low levels of marketing complicate food security issues in the context of increased agricultural liberalization. Developing countries` proposals on export subsidies range from appropriate regulation to abolition. . . .